I think 'daltonism' and 'daltonian' are fairly rare in English and probably only occur in medical texts. I was certainly only able to guess what daltonian meant based on the fact that I knew what 'daltonisme' was in Catalan and when I asked James if he knew what it meant he replied 'eh? you what?'.
Based on what is potentially just the general ignorance of the members of my household (when I asked Rebecca the same question she replied 'baa, baa, black sheep' and Benjamin replied 'waaaahh, waaaahh!'). I propose to enter just 'colour-blind (Br.)' / 'color-blind' (Am.) as the English equivalents.